Efficient detection of eukaryotic calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) by polyclonal antibody against prokaryotic expressed truncated CaSR
Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), which is better known for its action as regulating calcium homeostasis, can bind various ligands. To facilitate research on CaSR and understand the receptor’s function further, an in silico designed truncated protein was developed.
The resulting protein folding indicated that 99% of predicted three dimensional (3D) structure residues are located in favored and allowed Ramachandran plots. However, it was found that such protein does not fold properly when expressed in prokaryotic host cells.
Thioredoxin (Trx) tag was conjugated to increase the final protein’s solubility, which could help obtain the soluble antigen with better immunogenic properties. The truncated recombinant proteins were expressed and purified in two forms (Trx-CaSR: RR19 and CaSR: RRJ19).
The polyclonal antibody was induced by the rabbit immunization with the form of RR19. Western blot on mouse kidney lysates evidenced the proper immune recognition of the receptor by the produced antibody.
The specificity and sensitivity of antibodies were also assayed by immunohistofluorescence. These experiments affirmed antibody’s ability to indicate the receptor on the cell surface in native form and the possibility of applying such antibodies in further cellular and tissue assays.
Inhibitory Potential of Polyclonal Camel Antibodies against New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1)
New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) is the most prevalent type of metallo-β-lactamase, able to hydrolyze almost all antibiotics of the β-lactam group, leading to multidrug-resistant bacteria. To date, there are no clinically relevant inhibitors to fight NDM-1.
The use of dromedary polyclonal antibody inhibitors against NDM-1 represents a promising new class of molecules with inhibitory activity. In the current study, immunoreactivities of dromedary Immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotypes containing heavy-chain and conventional antibodies were tested after successful immunization of dromedary using increasing amounts of the recombinant NDM-1 enzyme.
Inhibition kinetic assays, performed using a spectrophotometric method with nitrocefin as a reporter substrate, demonstrated that IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 were able to inhibit not only the hydrolytic activity of NDM-1 but also Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase (VIM-1) (subclass B1) and L1 metallo-β-lactamase (L1) (subclass B3) with inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 100 to 0.04 μM.
Investigations on the ability of IgG subclasses to reduce the growth of recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)/codon plus cells containing the recombinant plasmid expressing NDM-1, L1, or VIM-1 showed that the addition of IgGs (4 and 8 mg/L) to the cell culture was unable to restore the susceptibility of carbapenems. Interestingly, IgGs were able to interact with NDM-1, L1, and VIM-1 when tested on the periplasm extract of each cultured strain.
The inhibitory concentration was in the micromolar range for all β-lactams tested. A visualization of the 3D structural basis using the three enzyme Protein Data Bank (PDB) files supports preliminarily the recorded inhibition of the three MBLs.
A Simple and Efficient Genetic Immunization Protocol for the Production of Highly Specific Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibodies against the Native Form of Mammalian Proteins
We have generated polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies by genetic immunization over the last two decades. In this paper, we present our most successful methodology acquired over these years and present the animals in which we obtained the highest rates of success.
The technique presented is convenient, easy, affordable, and generates antibodies against mammalian proteins in their native form. This protocol requires neither expensive equipment, such as a gene gun, nor sophisticated techniques such as the conjugation of gold microspheres, electroporation, or surgery to inject in lymph nodes.
The protocol presented uses simply the purified plasmid expressing the protein of interest under a strong promoter, which is injected at intramuscular and intradermal sites. This technique was tested in five species. Guinea pigs were the animals of choice for the production of polyclonal antibodies.
Monoclonal antibodies could be generated in mice by giving, as a last injection, a suspension of transfected cells. The antibodies detected their antigens in their native forms. They were highly specific with very low non-specific background levels, as assessed by immune-blots, immunocytochemistry, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. We present herein a detailed and simple procedure to successfully raise specific antibodies against native proteins.
Production of a polyclonal antibody against inosine-uridine preferring nucleoside hydrolase of Acanthamoeba castellanii and its access to diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis
Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare disease but its prevalence throughout the globe continues to grow, primarily due to increased contact lens usage. Since early-stage symptoms associated with AK closely resemble those from other corneal infections, accurate diagnosis is difficult and this often results in delayed treatment and exacerbation of the disease, which can lead to permanent visual impairment.
Accordingly, developing a rapid Acanthamoeba-specific diagnostic method is highly desired. In the present study, a rapid and differential method for AK diagnosis was developed using the secretory proteins derived from the pathogenic Acanthamoeba. Among the vast quantities of proteins secreted by the pathogenic Acanthamoeba, an open reading frame of the inosine-uridine preferring nucleoside hydrolase (IPNH) gene was obtained.
After expressing and purifying the IPNH protein using the pGEX 4T-3 vector system, mice were immunized with the purified proteins for polyclonal antibody generation. Western blot was performed using protein lysates of the human corneal cell, non-pathogenic amoeba, pathogenic amoeba, and clinical amoeba isolate along with lysates from other causes of keratitis such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Fusarium solani to confirm Acanthamoeba-specificity.
Western blot using the polyclonal IPNH antibody revealed that IPNH was Acanthamoeba-specific since these proteins were only observed in lysates of Acanthamoeba origin or its culture media. Our findings indicate that the IPNH antibody of Acanthamoeba may serve as a potential agent for rapid and differential AK diagnosis.
The prokaryotic expression, polyclonal antibody preparation, and subcellular localization of the transmembrane protein NS2A of the duck Tembusu virus
Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA arbovirus, belonging to the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. As a transmembrane protein, non-structural protein 2A (NS2A) plays an important role in virion assembly, replication complex and antagonizing host immune response. Since NS2A protein contains many hydrophobic amino acids, it is hard to gain the full-length protein of NS2A for prokaryotic expression.
Therefore, to make a deep study, prokaryotic expression and polyclonal antibody preparation of truncated DTMUV NS2A was performed. The truncated NS2A gene (178-450 bp) was obtained, and sub-cloned into the prokaryotic vector pGEX-4T-1 (pGEX-4T-1-NS2A178-450bp).
Subsequently, the recombinant GST-NS2A60-150aa protein was successfully expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) with the induction by 0.3 mmol/l isopropyl β-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) for 6 h at 37°C. The GST-NS2A60-150aa protein was extracted from the gel. The BALB/c mice were immunized with the purified recombinant NS2A protein to prepare polyclonal antibodies against the truncated NS2A protein.
The titer of the polyclonal antibodies, determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis, was 1:128 000. The specificity of the polyclonal antibodies (mPAb-DTMUV-NS2A60-150aa) were verified by Western blot analysis.
Furthermore, the indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) was performed to explore the subcellular localization of NS2A. NS2A protein was, in the transfected cells, located mainly around nucleus in the endoplasmatic reticulum. Taken together, our study provided a useful tool for the further exploration of the biological functions and molecular mechanism of DTMUV NS2A. Keywords: duck Tembusu virus; non-structural protein 2A; prokaryotic expression; polyclonal antibodies; subcellular location.